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What is Human in the Loop Automation

Learn about what human in the loop automation is, why it's important and how it can help you today.
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While the world is diving deeper and deeper into the ocean of automation, the role of humans in maintaining, guiding, and enhancing automated systems remains crucial. This blend of human oversight and machine efficiency is known as Human in the Loop (HITL) automation. It’s a concept that’s becoming ever more relevant in today’s automated workflows, ensuring that while machines handle the heavy lifting, human intelligence and decision-making remain at the forefront.

Understanding Human in the Loop Automation

Human in the Loop (HITL) automation is a hybrid approach where automated systems and human judgment are integrated into a single workflow.

Unlike full automation, which operates without any human input, HITL ensures that humans can intervene at specific stages to provide oversight, make decisions, and guide the automation process. This model leverages the strengths of both humans and machines, aiming to enhance overall efficiency and accuracy.

In practical scenarios, HITL can be applied in many ways:

  • Chatbots: In customer service, a chatbot may handle routine inquiries but escalate complex or sensitive issues to a human representative.
  • Manufacturing: In a manufacturing context, automated quality control systems might flag potential defects, which human inspectors then review for final determination.
  • Loan approvals: Automated systems can handle the initial review of loan applications, assessing eligibility based on predefined criteria. Complex cases or those requiring exceptions are forwarded to human underwriters who make final approval decisions.
  • Compliance monitoring: Automated tools can track compliance with regulations, flagging potential violations. Human compliance officers investigate these flags, interpret the regulations in context, and determine the necessary actions.

These examples highlight how HITL can ensure that while machines handle repetitive or data-intensive tasks, humans address the nuances and complexities that require judgment and experience.

The importance of human judgment in automation

There are numerous situations where human discretion is indispensable. Tasks that involve ethical considerations, nuanced decision-making, or complex problem-solving often require human intervention.

For instance, the following list covers different scenarios where human judgment is crucial to the success of automation:

  • Handling unpredictability. Automated systems excel at handling routine tasks with predictable outcomes but may struggle when faced with unexpected events or exceptions. By integrating human judgment, your team can sleep at night knowing their processes remain adaptable and can respond effectively to unforeseen challenges or changes in circumstance.
  • Complex decision-making. Certain processes require complex decision-making that goes beyond the capabilities of traditional automated systems. Human judgment brings a level of sophistication and nuance to these decisions, enabling organizations to make informed choices based on contextual information, experience, and expertise.
  • Risk assessment. In industries such as finance, healthcare, and manufacturing, risk assessment is critical. Automated processes may flag certain events or transactions as potentially risky but often lack the context required for a final determination. Human judgment plays an essential role in evaluating these potential risks, taking into consideration regulatory requirements, past experiences, and broader implications to make informed decisions.
  • Subjective analysis. There are instances where subjective analysis is critical, such as when assessing artistic merit, customer satisfaction, or emotional responses. Machines are limited by their lack of contextual understanding and inability to interpret subjective data; therefore, human judgment remains a crucial component in these processes.
  • Improved decision quality. Incorporating human judgment into automation workflows can lead to improved decision quality by combining the speed and consistency of automated systems with the intuition, creativity, and empathy of humans. This collaboration results in better-informed decisions that are both efficient and effective.
  • Compliance and regulatory requirements. Certain industries are subject to very strict regulatory requirements, necessitating human review for compliance purposes. Human judgment ensures that processes align with legal and regulatory frameworks while maintaining the benefits of automation, such as reduced manual effort and improved accuracy.
  • Emotional intelligence. In situations where emotional intelligence is key, such as customer service or clinical care, human input becomes indispensable. Machines cannot understand and respond to the nuances of human emotion, making human judgment vital in these scenarios.
  • Learning and evolution. By incorporating human feedback and oversight, automation systems can learn and evolve over time, becoming more efficient and effective at handling complex tasks. Human judgment serves as a guiding force in the continuous improvement of automated processes.

In short, combining human intelligence with automated processes offers significant benefits. Automation can handle vast amounts of data quickly and consistently, performing repetitive tasks without fatigue. Meanwhile, humans can apply critical thinking, creativity, and ethical considerations to ensure that the automated processes align with broader organizational goals and societal norms.

This balance allows organizations to achieve high efficiency while maintaining the flexibility to address exceptions and unforeseen challenges.

Components of HITL automation

HITL automation is a combination of technological and human components designed to achieve efficient, adaptable, and effective process workflows.

Overview of the technological components

Let’s start with an overview of the technological components and how they interact within the HITL framework.

Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN)

  • Definition: BPMN is a graphical representation that provides a standardized method for modeling business processes. It helps in visualizing, documenting, and optimizing workflows, including where human intervention is required.
  • Role in HITL: BPMN diagrams allow organizations to map out processes clearly, identifying tasks that can be automated and points where human judgment is necessary. This ensures that the workflow is transparent and easily understood by all stakeholders.

Decision engines

  • Definition: Decision engines are software tools that automate decision-making processes based on predefined rules and criteria. They analyze data inputs and execute decisions without human intervention, up to a certain complexity level.
  • Role in HITL: These engines handle routine decisions efficiently, but they have to escalate complex or ambiguous decisions to human operators. This ensures that critical decisions receive the necessary human oversight.

Process automation platforms

  • Definition: These platforms manage the execution of business processes, coordinating tasks between automated systems and human participants.
  • Role in HITL: Process automation platforms orchestrate the interaction between automated and human tasks, ensuring that processes flow smoothly and efficiently. They provide tools for monitoring, managing, and optimizing both automated and human-involved activities.

Monitoring and analytics tools

  • Definition: Providing real-time monitoring and analysis of workflows, these tools enable the performance tracking, identify bottlenecks, and ensure compliance.
  • Role in HITL: These tools help oversee the entire process, ensuring that human intervention is timely and effective. They provide insights you can use to refine and improve both automated and human components of the workflow.

Overview of the human components

Last but not least, let’s go over the human components of HITL and see how they work in tandem with technology.

Roles and responsibilities

  • Decision-makers: Individuals responsible for making critical decisions that require human judgment. These decisions often involve ethical considerations, complex problem-solving, and strategic planning.
  • Reviewers: Personnel who assess outputs from automated systems, ensuring quality control and compliance with standards. They validate the work done by machines and make necessary adjustments.
  • Operators: Staff members who manage and oversee the automated systems, ensuring they function correctly and intervening when necessary. They handle exceptions and troubleshoot issues that arise in the automated process.

Tasks and decisions

  • Human-driven tasks: Specific tasks that require human expertise, such as approving loans in finance, diagnosing medical conditions in healthcare, or finalizing legal documents in law.
  • Collaborative tasks: Tasks that involve both automated systems and human input, such as predictive maintenance in manufacturing where systems predict issues and human technicians perform the actual maintenance.
  • Critical decisions: Decisions that are escalated from automated systems to humans, often due to their complexity or the need for ethical considerations.

Interaction between human and system elements in HITL automation

To ensure that human intervention and technology work well together within an automated system, you’ll want to plan for and implement the following elements.

Seamless integration

  • Workflow design: Effective HITL automation requires well-designed workflows that clearly delineate the roles of automated systems and humans. BPMN diagrams play a crucial role in this design process, ensuring that there is a smooth handoff between automated tasks and human interventions.
  • Escalation mechanisms: Automated systems should have clear escalation protocols for handing over tasks to humans. This involves setting thresholds and criteria that determine when human intervention is needed, ensuring timely and appropriate responses.

Feedback loops

  • Continuous improvement: Interaction between human and system elements should include feedback mechanisms where humans can provide insights and feedback on the automated processes. This helps continuously improve the system based on real-world experiences and human expertise.
  • Training and adaptation: Automated systems can learn and adapt from human interventions. For example, machine learning models can be retrained based on human decisions and corrections, improving their accuracy and reliability over time.

Monitoring and management

  • Real-time oversight: Monitoring tools enable real-time oversight of the entire process, allowing human operators to intervene when anomalies or exceptions occur. This ensures that any issues are promptly addressed, maintaining the integrity of the workflow.
  • Performance metrics: Tracking and analyzing performance metrics for both automated systems and human tasks help to identify areas for improvement and optimize the overall process. This data-driven approach ensures that the HITL automation system evolves and improves continuously.

Compliance and governance

  • Audit trails: Maintaining detailed logs of human interventions and automated decisions ensures compliance with regulatory requirements and provides transparency.
  • Policy enforcement: Human operators play a crucial role in ensuring that automated processes adhere to company policies and ethical standards. They provide the necessary oversight to prevent misuse and ensure that the automation aligns with organizational values.

The components of HITL automation encompass a blend of sophisticated technological tools and crucial human roles. This combination ensures that while automated systems handle routine and data-intensive tasks efficiently, humans are involved where their judgment, creativity, and ethical considerations are necessary.

By designing workflows that integrate these components, organizations can achieve a balanced and effective HITL automation strategy.

Best practices for HITL automation

Implementing HITL automation effectively requires careful planning and adherence to best practices. These practices ensure that human intervention is meaningful, automation is efficient, and processes remain compliant with relevant regulations and governance standards.

Here are some best practices to consider:

  • Define clear criteria for escalation.
    • Thresholds and rules: Establish clear rules and thresholds for when tasks should be escalated from automated systems to human operators. This helps avoid unnecessary human intervention while ensuring critical cases receive the necessary attention.
    • Dynamic adjustment: Continuously monitor and adjust these thresholds based on performance data and feedback to maintain an optimal balance.
  • Leverage technology to enhance human capability.
    • Assistive tools: Use technology to augment human capabilities, such as providing decision support tools like assistive AI that offer insights and recommendations based on data analysis. This allows humans to make informed decisions more efficiently.
    • Automation of routine asks: Automate repetitive and low-value tasks to free up human resources for more complex and strategic activities. This improves overall productivity and job satisfaction.
  • Offer continuous training and development.
    • Skill enhancement: Provide ongoing training for human operators to ensure they stay up-to-date with the latest technologies and methodologies.
    • Feedback mechanisms: Implement feedback loops where human operators can provide insights and suggestions for improving the automated processes.
  • Enforce ethical standards and governance.
    • Ethical guidelines: Establish and enforce ethical guidelines for both automated systems and human operators. This includes principles for fairness, transparency, and accountability in decision-making.
    • Governance framework: Implement a governance framework that oversees the use of HITL automation, ensuring that it aligns with organizational values and regulatory requirements. This framework should include roles and responsibilities for monitoring and managing HITL processes.

By following these best practices, organizations can effectively implement HITL automation, achieving a balance that leverages the strengths of both automation and human judgment.

Use cases for HITL automation

Let’s now take a look at some industry-specific use cases where HITL helps provide a secure and ethical automation process.

Finance: Fraud detection and prevention

  • Scenario: Automated systems monitor transactions for patterns indicative of fraud, such as unusual spending or transfers.
  • Human intervention: When the system flags potential fraud, human analysts review the flagged transactions to determine if they are indeed fraudulent. They consider context and nuances that the system might miss, such as customer behavior patterns and historical data.
  • Benefits: Reduces false positives, ensures accurate identification of fraudulent activities, and enhances customer trust.

Healthcare: Diagnostic support

  • Scenario: Automated diagnostic tools analyze medical images and patient data to identify potential issues such as tumors or fractures.
  • Human intervention: Radiologists or doctors review the system’s findings, considering the patient’s medical history, symptoms, and other diagnostic information.
  • Benefits: Increases diagnostic accuracy, reduces the likelihood of misdiagnosis, and ensures comprehensive patient care.

Marketing: Content personalization

  • Scenario: Automated systems analyze user data to personalize marketing content.
  • Human intervention: Marketers review the personalized content to ensure it aligns with brand messaging and resonates with the target audience.
  • Benefits: Enhances customer engagement, ensures brand consistency, and improves marketing effectiveness.

These industry-specific use cases illustrate the versatility and importance of HITL automation. By effectively integrating human judgment with automated processes, organizations can achieve greater accuracy, efficiency, and overall effectiveness.

Challenges and considerations in HITL automation

Implementing HITL automation comes with its own set of challenges and considerations, ranging from technical hurdles to ethical dilemmas. Addressing these challenges is essential to ensure the successful integration of human judgment with automated processes.

Here are some common challenges faced in implementing HITL and strategies for overcoming them:

  • Integration complexity.
    • Challenge: Integrating automated systems with human workflows can be complex, especially when existing processes are deeply ingrained in an organization.
    • Solution: Invest in robust workflow automation platforms that allow for seamless integration and provide tools for managing both automated and human tasks.
  • Skill and training gaps.
    • Challenge: Human operators may lack the necessary skills or training to effectively interact with automated systems.
    • Solution: Provide comprehensive training programs to human operators to familiarize them with the technology, tools, and processes involved in HITL automation. Offer ongoing support and resources for skill development.
  • Decision-making complexity.
    • Challenge: Determining when to involve human judgment in automated processes can be difficult, especially in dynamic and complex environments.
    • Solution: Establish clear criteria and guidelines for when human intervention is necessary, based on factors such as the complexity of the task, ethical considerations, and risk levels. Continuously refine these criteria based on feedback and performance data.

The key to solving all these problems is the continuous iteration and refinement of the policies and processes put in place to incorporate humans in these automation workflows.

Camunda and human in the loop automation

Camunda stands at the forefront of business process management (BPM) software, offering versatile solutions for orchestrating automated workflows, including those involving HITL automation.

Let’s have a deeper look at how Camunda facilitates HITL automation and supports human tasks.

Enabling seamless HITL automation

Camunda provides a platform for designing workflows that seamlessly integrate both automated and human tasks. Its flexible workflow modeling capabilities allow organizations to tailor HITL automation scenarios to their specific needs. This adaptability ensures that human intervention occurs precisely where and when it’s needed, optimizing workflow efficiency and accuracy.

Empowering human task management

Within Camunda BPM, human operators benefit from streamlined task management through the Tasklist interface. This user-friendly platform allows them to view, prioritize, and execute assigned tasks with ease.

Customizable task views enable organizations to present relevant information and actions, ensuring that human operators can focus on tasks that are most critical or relevant to their roles.

Features supporting human tasks

Camunda BPM incorporates features specifically designed to support human tasks within automated workflows, such as:

  • Dynamic task assignment. Camunda Modeler can dynamically assign tasks to human operators based on predefined rules using the DMN (Decision Model and Notation) tables. Through these tables and process parameters such as task priority, availability, or skillset, the workflow can decide if it has to assign the task to a human and select one from a  pool of candidates.
  • Task escalation and collaboration. The platform supports task escalation mechanisms, enabling human operators to escalate tasks to supervisors or collaborate with colleagues as needed. This ensures timely resolution of complex or escalated tasks, ultimately improving workflow efficiency and decision-making.

Leveraging Camunda Operate for monitoring and management

Camunda Operate, the monitoring and management tool offered by Camunda, plays a vital role in HITL automation:

  • Real-time task monitoring. Operate provides real-time visibility into task execution, allowing organizations to monitor the progress of human tasks and identify bottlenecks or delays. This facilitates proactive intervention to address issues and optimize workflow performance.
  • Task analytics and reporting. Operate’s advanced analytics and reporting capabilities empower organizations to make data-driven decisions, refine process designs, and continuously improve HITL automation workflows. Insights derived from task performance metrics enable organizations to optimize processes for maximum efficiency and effectiveness.


In summary, HITL automation offers a powerful blend of human judgment and automated efficiency, enhancing accuracy and flexibility while maintaining ethical integrity. By considering HITL for process optimization, organizations can streamline operations, elevate customer experience, and foster innovation.

While you’re at it, explore Camunda’s specialized solutions to harness the full potential of HITL automation and propel your organization toward operational excellence.

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