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What is a Workflow Diagram?

Visualization leads to optimization—workflow diagrams give you a clear map of even the most complex processes.
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Imagine trying to bake a cake without a recipe. You might have a rough idea of the ingredients, but without clear steps to follow, it’s easy to get lost. This is where workflow diagrams come in handy.

Workflow diagrams, also known as flowcharts, are visual tools that map out the steps in a process. They break down complex tasks into simple, easy-to-follow steps, helping teams understand and optimize their workflows.

In process management, workflow diagrams are essential. They bring clarity, highlight inefficiencies, and ensure everyone understands their roles. By visualizing the process, these diagrams make it easier to identify and solve problems, leading to smoother and more efficient operations.

In this article, we’ll explore what makes up a workflow diagram, what role they play in business process management, and best practices for using them effectively.

Understanding workflow diagrams

A workflow diagram is a visual representation of a process or a sequence of tasks. It uses standardized symbols to depict the steps involved, the order in which they occur, and the decisions that need to be made along the way.

Common symbols include rectangles for tasks or activities, diamonds for decision points, and arrows to show the flow of the process. By laying out these elements in a clear and logical manner, workflow diagrams help people understand how a process works from start to finish.

The purpose and use of workflow diagrams in business processes

Workflow diagrams serve several key purposes in business processes:

  • Clarifying complex processes: By breaking down a process into its component steps, workflow diagrams make complex tasks easier to understand. This visual clarity helps teams grasp the overall workflow quickly and identify any areas that might need improvement.
  • Improving efficiency: Workflow diagrams highlight inefficiencies, redundancies, and bottlenecks within a process. By visualizing these issues, businesses can streamline their operations, reduce wasted time, and enhance productivity.
  • Standardizing procedures: Consistency is crucial in business operations. Workflow diagrams provide a standardized way to document processes, ensuring that everyone follows the same steps and maintains quality control.
  • Facilitating communication: These diagrams serve as a common language for team members, managers, and stakeholders. They make it easier to discuss processes, share insights, and collaborate on improvements.
  • Training and onboarding: For new employees, understanding company processes can be overwhelming. Workflow diagrams simplify training by offering a clear, visual guide to how things are done, making the onboarding process smoother and more efficient.

In other words, workflow diagrams are invaluable tools in business processes. They provide clarity, improve efficiency, standardize procedures, facilitate communication, and ease training efforts.

By investing time and resources into the creation of workflow diagrams, businesses ensure their processes run smoothly and effectively.

The anatomy of a workflow diagram

Workflow diagrams use a set of standardized symbols and notations to represent different components of a process. Here are some of the most common symbols:

  • Rectangles or ovals: Represent tasks or activities that need to be performed. Rectangles with additional markings can indicate groups of tasks, such as:
    • Subprocesses: Represented by rectangles with double lines on the sides, these denote a set of activities that form a smaller process within the main workflow.
    • Pools: Represented by a rectangle with an associated name to it, these show entire workflows where partner entities interact with your main workflow.
  • Diamonds: Indicate decision points where a `yes/no` or `true/false` choice must be made. The outcome of these decisions determines the next steps in the process.
  • Arrows: Show the direction of flow from one step to the next, guiding the sequence of activities.
  • Circles: Often represent the start or end points of a process.
  • Parallelograms: Indicate inputs or outputs, such as data entry or document generation.

Understanding these symbols is crucial for making sense of workflow diagrams and, of course, for creating them.

Different types of workflow diagrams

Workflow diagrams come in various types, each suited for different purposes and levels of complexity:

Sequential workflow diagrams

Sequential workflow diagrams represent a linear sequence of activities, where each activity is completed before moving on to the next. These diagrams are useful for modeling simple business processes that require a straightforward sequence of steps.

Example: A customer places an order, and then the process follows a sequential flow to complete the order fulfillment. The diagram would show each step in the order, such as receiving the order, processing payment, and shipping the product.

Parallel workflow diagrams

Parallel workflow diagrams, also known as fork-join or concurrent flow, represent multiple parallel paths that converge at the end. These diagrams are useful for modeling processes that involve multiple tasks that can happen simultaneously, such as data processing or customer onboarding.

Example: A customer submits a loan application, and the process splits into two parallel paths to verify creditworthiness and income. Once both paths are complete, the process converges to approve or reject the loan.

Conditional workflow diagrams

Conditional workflow diagrams use decision nodes to route activities based on conditions or rules. These diagrams are useful for modeling complex business processes that require conditional logic, such as order processing or claims handling.

Example: A customer submits an insurance claim, and the process uses a gateway to determine whether to approve or reject the claim based on policy coverage and documentation.

Event-driven workflow diagrams

Event-driven workflow diagrams represent a process triggered by an event, which then leads to a series of subsequent actions. These diagrams are useful for modeling processes triggered by external events, such as customer complaints or changes in inventory levels.

Example: A supplier notifies the company of a delay in delivery due to a natural disaster, and the process is triggered to notify customers and adjust production schedules accordingly.

State machine workflow diagrams

State machine workflow diagrams represent a complex business process with multiple states and transitions between them. These diagrams are useful for modeling processes that have multiple stages, such as order fulfillment or supply chain management.

Example: A product goes through various stages of production, including raw materials, manufacturing, inspection, and shipping. The state machine diagram shows each stage and the transitions between them.

Subprocess workflow diagrams

Subprocess workflow diagrams show a nested process within another process, allowing for more detailed modeling of complex tasks. These diagrams are useful for breaking down large-scale business processes into smaller subprocesses that can be easily managed and analyzed.

Example: A company has an order fulfillment process that involves multiple subprocesses, such as receiving the order, processing payment, and shipping the product. The subprocess diagram shows each step in more detail, allowing for a deeper understanding of the overall process.

How to read a workflow diagram

Reading a workflow diagram involves understanding the flow and sequence of steps depicted by the symbols and arrows:

  1. Start at the beginning. Identify the start symbol (usually a circle) to see where the process begins.
  2. Follow the arrows. Arrows guide you through the sequence of activities. Follow them from one step to the next.
  3. Understand the tasks. Each rectangle or oval describes a task or activity. Read their descriptions to understand what needs to be done at each step.
  4. Make decisions. When you reach a diamond symbol, understand that a decision is required. Follow the arrows leading from the decision point based on the outcome.
  5. Look for loops and subprocesses. Some workflows may loop back to previous steps or include subprocesses. Pay attention to these elements to understand the full scope of the workflow.
  6. Identify the end. The end of the process is typically marked by a specific symbol, often another circle, indicating the completion of the workflow.

By familiarizing yourself with the symbols, types, and reading techniques of workflow diagrams, you can efficiently interpret and utilize these powerful tools to streamline and enhance your business processes.

Workflow diagram example

Let’s look at one example problem and how you would model it using everything covered so far.

Let’s say that you have a credit request that requires two human approvers to look at it and provide their individual approvals before the credit can, indeed, go through.

Here is how you could model this workflow:

Modeling a workflow diagram

Reading the workflow diagram

Following this step-by-step process, start at the beginning. The circle corresponds to the start of the process in the main pool (the one called Process Engine). Follow the arrows from there.

You immediately hit a human task that leads you to the first pool, where you can see the entire workflow of the first approver.

The output of that task is then directed into a decision diamond, where you move forward if the request was approved or down to the abrupt end of your process if it wasn’t.

You then hit another human task Just like the previous one, this task redirects you to the second pool, where you see the full approval workflow of the second approver.

Based on the output of that process, close the main lane, either with a request approved or a request rejected status.

The role of workflow diagrams in business process management

At the heart of business process management (BPM) are workflow diagrams, which serve as the visual maps guiding teams through complex processes. By translating abstract processes into concrete visuals, workflow diagrams make it easier for teams to understand and follow the plan.

Benefits of visualizing processes through diagrams

Imagine trying to assemble a piece of furniture without any instructions. That would be a frustrating afternoon, wouldn’t it? The same applies to business processes. Without a clear visual guide, tasks can become confusing, leading to errors and inefficiencies.

Visualizing processes through workflow diagrams offers numerous benefits:

  • Clarity and transparency: When processes are laid out visually, it’s much easier to grasp the big picture. Everyone can see how their tasks fit into the overall workflow, reducing confusion and increasing transparency.
  • Error reduction: By mapping out each step, potential bottlenecks and inefficiencies become apparent. This allows teams to address issues before they escalate, reducing the likelihood of errors.
  • Training and onboarding: New team members can quickly get up to speed by referring to workflow diagrams. They serve as a handy reference, making the training process smoother and more efficient.

How workflow diagrams facilitate communication and collaboration

One of the biggest challenges in any organization is ensuring effective communication and collaboration. Workflow diagrams act as a universal language, bridging gaps between departments and team members in several ways:

  • Enhanced communication: With visual diagrams, everyone is on the same page. There’s less room for misinterpretation when processes are clearly outlined, leading to more effective communication.
  • Improved collaboration: Workflow diagrams foster a collaborative environment by making it easy for team members to see how their work impacts others. This encourages a sense of shared responsibility and teamwork.
  • Stakeholder engagement: When presenting processes to stakeholders or clients, workflow diagrams provide a clear and professional way to showcase your operations. This can build trust and confidence in your business.

Common mistakes and misconceptions

Creating workflow diagrams may seem straightforward, but there are some common problems that can affect even the most seasoned professionals. Here are a few typical errors to watch out for:

  • Overcomplicating the diagram: One of the most frequent mistakes is making the diagram too complex. While it’s important to capture all necessary details, an overly intricate diagram can be confusing and counterproductive. Aim for simplicity and clarity. Try to break up the complexity into multiple diagrams if you must.
  • Lack of standardization: Using inconsistent symbols or styles can lead to confusion and misinterpretation. Stick to standardized symbols and conventions to ensure everyone understands the diagram easily. Remember, these diagrams should act as a universal language, so anyone can understand them.
  • Ignoring user feedback: Failing to gather input from the people who will actually use the workflow diagram can result in a tool that doesn’t meet their needs. Always involve these end users while building the diagrams to ensure the result is practical and helpful.
  • Neglecting updates: Business processes are dynamic and can change over time. Some teams make the mistake of creating a workflow diagram once and never revisiting it. Regularly perform reviews to understand if any changes or updates are required in your diagrams to keep them relevant and accurate.

Despite workflows being so common nowadays, there are several misconceptions about workflow diagrams that can affect their use. Let’s take a look at some of these myths:

  • “Workflow diagrams are only for large corporations.” Many small and medium-size businesses believe that workflow diagrams are only necessary for large enterprises. In reality, organizations of all sizes can benefit from using workflow diagrams to streamline processes and improve efficiency. In fact, sometimes small companies need that process optimization step to reduce unnecessary expenses. Workflow diagrams can help there.
  • “They’re only useful for technical teams.” While IT or engineering teams certainly benefit from them, workflow diagrams are equally useful across various departments, including HR, marketing, and customer service.
  • “Once created, they don’t need further attention.” As mentioned earlier, business processes evolve. Regular updates and reviews are essential to maintain the diagram’s accuracy and usefulness.
  • “They’re too time-consuming to create.” It’s true that creating a detailed workflow diagram can take time, but the benefits far outweigh the initial investment. A well-constructed diagram can save countless hours by preventing misunderstandings and streamlining workflows.
  • “Anyone can create an effective workflow diagram.” While many people can create basic diagrams, developing an effective and efficient workflow diagram often requires a deeper understanding of both the process and the best practices in diagramming. Don’t hesitate to seek training or consult experts if needed.

Workflow diagrams and Camunda

Camunda excels in both the creation and execution of workflow diagrams, making it a comprehensive solution for BPM needs. Here’s how it supports each phase:

Creation of workflow diagrams

  • User-friendly modeling tools: Camunda provides an intuitive, drag-and-drop interface through its Modeler tool. This makes it easy for users to create detailed workflow diagrams without needing extensive technical expertise. The Modeler supports BPMN 2.0, which is a globally recognized standard for business process modeling.
  • Collaboration features: Camunda’s platform allows for real-time collaboration, enabling multiple team members to work on the same diagram simultaneously. This fosters a collaborative environment where ideas can be shared and refined quickly.
  • Validation and error checking: The Modeler includes built-in validation features to help ensure your diagrams are correctly formatted and free of logical errors. This reduces the risk of issues during execution.
  • Extensibility: The platform is highly extensible, allowing you to integrate custom scripts and business logic into your workflow diagrams. You can also integrate or create custom connectors through Camunda’s integration framework.

Execution of workflow diagrams

  • Process engine: At the core of Camunda’s platform is a powerful process engine that can execute BPMN workflow diagrams. The engine handles task assignments, transitions, and business rules, ensuring that processes run smoothly and efficiently.
  • Automation: Camunda allows for the automation of repetitive tasks, freeing up valuable time for your team. By automating mundane processes, you can focus on more strategic initiatives.
  • Monitoring and optimization: With Camunda’s Operate, you get a comprehensive monitoring tool that allows you to track the performance of your workflows in real time. You can identify bottlenecks, analyze performance metrics, and make data-driven decisions to optimize your processes.
  • Scalability: Whether you’re managing a handful of processes or thousands, Camunda’s platform is designed to scale with your needs. Its robust architecture ensures reliable performance, even as your organization grows.
  • Integration capabilities: Camunda seamlessly integrates with other systems and platforms, such as ERP, CRM, and custom applications. This ensures that your workflow diagrams can interact with existing infrastructure, providing a holistic solution to BPM.


The ability to visualize and optimize processes is more critical than ever. Workflow diagrams play an indispensable role in business process management (BPM) by providing clear, visual maps of complex processes. These diagrams enhance clarity and transparency, reduce errors, facilitate training, and foster better communication and collaboration within organizations.

By avoiding common mistakes and misconceptions, businesses can harness the full potential of workflow diagrams. When combined with a powerful BPM platform like Camunda, the benefits multiply.

We encourage you to leverage workflow diagrams and the Camunda BPM platform to streamline your operations, improve efficiency, and drive organizational success.

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